Sahel Drought Case Study
Causes and Impacts of Land Degradation and Desertification: Case...
Desertification, a phenomenon referring to land degradation in arid, semi-arid and dry sub-humid regions as a result of climatic variations and human activities, is ...
Sahel Drought Case Study
To qualify as agroforestry, a given land-use system or practice must permit economic or ecological interactions between the woody and non-woody components this definition provides a classification in agrosilvicultural (trees with crops) and silvopastoral (trees with pastures) practices, sequential and simultaneous systems in zonal and mixed arrangement of trees and crops. A study in western sudan has shown a steady increase of bare soil around boreholes over time, increasing from 20 to 55 in 30 years22,23,24. Pressures from human and livestock populations coupled with the effects of recurrent drought have led to a serious degradation of vegetational cover, erosion, and the depletion of soil fertility on a large scale in many parts of sub-saharan africa.
Wind speeds exceeding 100 kmhour have been recorded at icrisat is sahelian centre in niger. In contrast, the impact of 1984, which was more severe than 1973 in climatologically terms, was less serious for the economies of many countries which was also the race in the sahel. The years 1973, 1984, and 1992 were bad, while 1963, and, to a lesser extent 1989 were remarkable years in that almost the whole continent experienced above average conditions.
The sahelian drought may have ended during the 1990s. Such assistance may take the following forms support to pastoralists in transporting livestock to alternative grazing areas during severe dry spells income-generating schemes that enable people to diversify their sources of income on a small scale training and education in relevant skills, for example in carpentry or bicycle repair, to enable people to earn an income it is also important to ensure that populations have access to safe water and basic sanitation in times of drought, as wells and other groundwater supplies dry up or become polluted. Generally, a marked and progressive deterioration of rainfall has occurred since the mid-1960s culminating in the mid-1980s.
Evidence from various reports34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, indicated a downward rainfall trend. Food and agriculture organization agrometerology group roma, 2000. Thomas (eds) world atlas of desertification 2nd edition, london edward arnold.
The government has realized the potential of animal resources for earning foreign exchange. Recurring droughts and land degradation are closely linked. Crop production and animal husbandry together form the back bone of sudans economy.
Moreover, natural grasses and herbs play a significant role in soil conservation, watershed protection, desertification control, carbon sequestration, maintaining biodiversity, providing medicines, and in the release of plant nutrient elements during the process of humification and mineralization of decomposed grass roots31, 32 open grazing is the common practice, which has many disadvantages. . The removal of vegetation cover exacerbates desertification and accelerates soil erosion which causes reduced soil fertility and eventually renders the land on productive a situation that has often lead to the assumption that it is a human induced process which leads to the depletion of soil nutrients and a reduction of biological productivity. On the question of the recovery of the rains in the west african sahel. The term land degradation involves both soil and vegetation degradation.
Drought - Wikipedia
A drought is a period of below-average precipitation in a given region, resulting in prolonged shortages in the water supply, whether atmospheric, surface water or ...
Sahel Drought Case Study
The Sahel - An ecosystem at risk - TES Resources
This lesson looks at the issues that are threatening the Sahel region of Africa. Changes in climate and human mismanagement are causing desertification. This is ...
Sahel Drought Case Study
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Drought - IFRC
The government has realized the potential of animal resources for earning foreign exchange. In the sudan rainfall is the most limiting factor, as it is erratic and unevenly distributed. Sahel precipitation anomalies 1900-2011 june through ochober averages over 20-10 n, 20-10 e. Land degradation occurs when this balance is lost. Evidence from various reports34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, indicated a downward rainfall trend.
An introduction to agroforestry, kluwer academic publishers, 1993. Recurring droughts and land degradation are closely linked. Agroforestry systems in the tropics, forestry sciences, 3113-18. Some of these people have been settled in refugee camps thus adding to the problem of an increasing population in the affected areas. However, there is tremendous pressure from grazing, especially by goats.
Gis and spatial models in semi-arid sudan meddelanden fran lunds unversitets geografisk institution, avhandlingar, 98, 1985. One of the greatest threats is desertification, which robs the land of its soil, biodiversity, and productivity. This increased the concentration of people and livestock around urban areas and drastically increased the pressure on the surrounding land for cropping, grazing, and fuel. It is estimated that three-fourths of drylands have suffered from some degree of desertification15,16,17,18. Livestock production is widely practiced under a traditional system. Results showed that in rain-fed agricultural zones in the sudan, deep ploughing and leveling of the surface soil caused an increase in its susceptibility to wind erosion, which, in turn, has led to a severe decline in its fertility and, in some places, the formation of sand dunes. It was not until the twentieth century that governments and people in general finally realized that land degradation and desertification threatened their future. Nile state, awateeb village) results from various sources indicated that the sahel region is renowned for its twin environmental problems of drought and desertification. A drought may result in other disasters rural communities can sometimes cope with one or two successive rain failures and crop or livestock losses the situation becomes an emergency when people have exhausted all their purchasing resources, food stocks, assets and normal coping mechanisms. In general, the red cross red crescent response to drought and food insecurity prioritizes the provision of food, safe water and basic sanitation, in parallel, programmes are implemented to preserve and restore livelihoods.Drought is an insidious phenomenon. Unlike rapid onset disasters, it tightens its grip over time, gradually destroying an area. In severe cases, drought ...
Planet Ark – World Environment NewsPlanet Ark is all about creating positive environmental actions, for everyone – but especially for you. And the easiest way to learn about those actions is to ...
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The sahel has remained drier than normal well after 1995. It places about one billion people in 110 countries at risk, mainly in developing regions. Thus agroforestry technology has been seen by many as a potential solution to this continued problem of declining rural agricultural production in the tropics and for that matter, the sudan61, 62. Thomas (eds) world atlas of desertification 2nd edition, london edward arnold. In sudan, the current trend is mainly one of increasing exploitation of the natural resources, leading to over-exploitation in large areas, owing to the lack of alternatives for a growing population.
For example, rural populations may migrate to the outskirts of towns in search of better conditions Buy now Sahel Drought Case Study
In 1973 almost all the african countries suffered, north and south alike. Nile flood was the poorest during the period of modern records. Food and agriculture organization agrometerology group roma, 2000. For example, in the same part of sudan to which55, referred,56 could find no correlations between population density and degradation. Many political and institutional problems have conspired to degrade 20 of the worlds drylands, including 22 of asias susceptible drylands, and 25 of africas.
Farming is taken beyond the limits of sustainable rain-fed agriculture. Thus agroforestry technology has been seen by many as a potential solution to this continued problem of declining rural agricultural production in the tropics and for that matter, the sudan61, 62 Sahel Drought Case Study Buy now
Nile flood was the poorest during the period of modern records. As the word and concept became generally accepted in international land-use domains, many definitions of the term were put forward, as described in detail by65. Soil and tillage research , 25 301-315, 1993. Low values, however, do not necessarily lead to drought nor is drought necessarily associated with low rainfall. This is mainly due to the fact that grazing and animal rearing is practiced under communal ownership which lacks control and management and often leads to the degradation of vegetation and soil and results in social conflicts.
Over cultivation of croplands, overgrazing of range and pastoral lands, slash and burn techniques, shifting cultivation, inappropriate use of irrigation water (salinization) and industrial pollution are some of the factors which can cause degradation (see figure 2) Buy Sahel Drought Case Study at a discount
Recent trends and anomalies in mean seasonal and annual temperatures over sudan. Studies of degradation, even in africa, have not found it easy to relate population densities to degradation. Man can either destroy his environment or be constructive and solve problems that occur within it. Rainfall variability is an important factor in dryland climates47. To qualify as agroforestry, a given land-use system or practice must permit economic or ecological interactions between the woody and non-woody components this definition provides a classification in agrosilvicultural (trees with crops) and silvopastoral (trees with pastures) practices, sequential and simultaneous systems in zonal and mixed arrangement of trees and crops Buy Online Sahel Drought Case Study
C, role of the west african westerly jet in sahel rainfall variations. Thus agroforestry technology has been seen by many as a potential solution to this continued problem of declining rural agricultural production in the tropics and for that matter, the sudan61, 62. The nomadic life-style of the rural communities located next to forest land has also contributed to the depletion of resources as a result of conflicts amongst themselves and with other stakeholders over scarce resources which are in a fragile condition. Even without climate change, the drylands face a daunting array of threats including population pressure, social changes such as the settlement of traditionally nomadic peoples, and exploitive agricultural and grazing practices that increase deforestation, soil erosion, salinization and water depletion Buy Sahel Drought Case Study Online at a discount
Results showed that in rain-fed agricultural zones in the sudan, deep ploughing and leveling of the surface soil caused an increase in its susceptibility to wind erosion, which, in turn, has led to a severe decline in its fertility and, in some places, the formation of sand dunes. Sudan and elsewhere in africa 15-13 degrees of latitude,mccorquodale(sudan),khartoum. It is reported that this decline was especially evident for the core of the rainy season, over western sahel, dry conditions are still dominant52. Some regional patterns of rainfall can be expressed in terms of variability, trends (upward or downward), and persistence. The desertification in the sudan is the combination of both natural and human factors, which results in a decline of productivity or the degradation of natural resources, such as the constant destruction and deterioration of the land, which reduces the usefulness of these areas to man Sahel Drought Case Study For Sale
Recurring droughts and land degradation are closely linked. Livestock rearing ranks after crop production as a major economic activity. The downward trend from 1960 to 1970 affected the whole continent, but only had a negative impact on food production in the low rainfall areas. Crop production and animal husbandry together form the back bone of sudans economy. The study was based on a fact finding tour in the sudan and data collection on drought trends as reflected in rainfall trends in the study area, and on trends concerning the productivity of natural resources.
The link between desertification and poverty is direct and intimate and affects all those who depend on the land as a basic resource, whether for crops, livestock, or fuel-wood For Sale Sahel Drought Case Study
Unsuitable and damaging forms of land use are the main causal factors of land degradation and include overcultivation, overgrazing, shifting cultivation or slash and burn techniques, tree felling and illegal logging. The international federation is committed to reducing vulnerability to drought by enhancing the availability of and access to food and by increasing communities resilience so that they are better able to deal with food insecurity. The study was based on a fact finding tour in the sudan and data collection on drought trends as reflected in rainfall trends in the study area, and on trends concerning the productivity of natural resources. The adverse effect of over-exploitation is characterized by environmental degradation, scarcity of tree products, marginal crop and pasture yields, removal of vegetation cover by overgrazing58, soil loss as a result of monocropping, and over-grazing leading to erosion, water run-off and loss of topsoil or soil nutrients, and reduction of biodiversity (local disappearance of the most palatable and useful species, fodder trees and most wildlife59 Sale Sahel Drought Case Study
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