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One-child policy - Wikipedia One-child policy - Wikipedia
China's one-child policy was part of a birth planning program designed to control the size of its population. Distinct from the family planning policies of most other countries (which focus on providing contraceptive options to help women have the number of children they want), it set a limit on the number of children parents could have, the world's most extreme example of population planning.

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April 2006, nebraska 2005 statistical report of abortions, httpdhhs. This would tend to undermine the claims regarding the efficacy of contraception methods, something highly promoted by groups such as planned parenthood. The sole exception is florida, which like illinois as discussed above likely represents inflated reporting of rape as a reason for abortion.

March 1997, abortion rights leader urges end to half truths, national right to life, 1996, for what reasons are partial-birth abortions usually performed?, sprang, m. The most extreme claimed rates of underreporting are necessary to bring this in line with agis claim of 13,000 rape-related abortions per year. Available information on reasons for abortion are generally self-reported by the abortion seeker and thus not verifiable.

Much of these changes are attributed to increased use of art and changes in plurality of art births, both due to selection reduction abortions and to changes in numbers of art-implanted embryos 40. The authors identified several up or down trends in the ratio between 19, including a 0. State of florida 2008, florida agency for health care administration, 16 sept.

Note that known pregnancies for states includes only pregnancies ending in live births or reported abortions this excludes miscarriages (small numbers in comparison) and stillbirths (for which little data is available). The agi-based figure of 1 of abortions for cases of rape or incest is widely cited. For example, an april 2005 information sheet 7 states that about 13,000 women have abortions following rape or incest.

Further, the prevailing preferences of the american electorate are often cited in regard to u. Note the south dakota questionnaire allows respondents to indicate multiple reasons, so numbers add to more than total abortions. However, they are independent data and involve a larger sample.

They analyzed possible factors (age of mother, birth order, ethnicity) and noted additional parentalenvironmental characteristics that naturally influence the birth ratio. The alan guttmacher institute (agi) has published several studies examining reasons for abortions in the united states. Fbi and doj figures and the holmes et al. Louisiana center for records and statistics, induced terminations of pregnancy by reason for abortion and age, reported occurring in louisiana, --, , on line 1997, 1996, httpoph. According to the fbi, reported annual numbers of forcible rapes in the united states rose from about 90,000 in the mid 1980s to a peak of 109,062 in 1992, then dropped to about 89,000-95,000 for the years 1998-2009 and to 84,767 in 2010 9.


Two-child policy - Wikipedia


A two-child policy is a government-imposed limit of two children allowed per family or the payment of government subsidies only to the first two children. It has previously been used in Vietnam.

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How child care costs fit into EPI’s basic family budgets. Child care costs are one of the most significant expenses in a family’s budget, largely because child care and early education is a labor-intensive industry, requiring a low student-to-teacher ratio (CCAA 2014).
One Child Policy Case Study Federal medicaid funds may currently be used to pay for abortions in cases of rape, incest, or threat to the mothers life. Partial-birth abortion roughly corresponding to what the medical community describes as intact dilation and extraction. No more implants, no more illness. The table below gives reported percentages for the most important reason and for all reasons cited. The result is that births of chinese ethnicity have the highest average malefemale ratio in 1998-2002, 1, Additionally, of 34 cases of pregnancy after rape, they found 17 (50) had an abortion, 11 (32) kept the baby, 2 (6) gave the baby up for adoption, and 4 (12) miscarried. Finally, the available statistical data is used to quantify reasons for abortions in the united states. Evaluating this claim also involves issues of reliability of rape-related statistics.
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    Among maternal indicators, the single most frequent was maternal depression (39, or 1. Since some states and the agi surveys do not separate abortions in cases of threat to the mothers life from abortions in cases of threat to the mothers health, these are both included in the maternal health figures below. State of florida 2008, florida agency for health care administration, 16 sept. This figure appears to be derived from the 1987 survey percentage (or from preliminary results of the 2004 survey). Together, the available statistics from these seven states represent 1,929,415 abortions from 1980 to 2014, of which reasons were provided in 1,692,999 cases (this is a sample 124 times larger than the total for the three agi studies cited above).

    Regardless of the acutal rate of reporting, it is widely agreed that large numbers of rapes go unreported to authorities. In the united states, limited official statistics are available. Stewart and trussell extrapolate this to 25,000 per year in 1998 merely by considering lower crime rates. In many countries, abortions are permissible only for limited reasons. For example, an april 2005 information sheet 7 states that about 13,000 women have abortions following rape or incest.

    Available information on reasons for abortion are generally self-reported by the abortion seeker and thus not verifiable. Adjusted figures for abortions in the case of maternal physical health problems in the case of south dakota, data by reason for abortion is not available figures are for abortions where fetal abnormalities were reported, regardless of the indicated reason for the abortion. Taking the 2005-2010 average annual reported rapes of 90,000 per year and assuming 5 result in pregnancy and 50 of these are aborted, this implies 4,500 pregnancies per year following rape of which 2,250 are aborted. Note the south dakota questionnaire allows respondents to indicate multiple reasons, so numbers add to more than total abortions. Haskell stated that about 80 of the pbas he performed were purely elective, with the remainder performed for genetic reasons. Since the fbi only reported 91,111 forcible rapes in the u. The sole exception is florida, which like illinois as discussed above likely represents inflated reporting of rape as a reason for abortion. Even sex selective abortions may be more common than those for some of the hard cases. In the united states, abortion on demand and for any reason is the existing state of law (with a few limitations in some states2). Nonetheless, it will be seen below that the larger sampling in states that report figures for rape-related abortions give consistent results, supporting the reasoning for lower figures than the agi figures.

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    Reasons given for having abortions in the United States

    In this survey, 0.6% reported being forced to have relations (although a figure as high as 0.8% is possible depending on data breakdown). It is also interesting to note that 17% of abortions were for pregnancies following "proper" use of contraception.
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    The 1,773 women who responded gave an average of 3. March 2001, nebraska 2000 statistical report of abortions, httpwww. Were the change in birth ratio among asian americans to be attributed to abortions, it would represent on the order of 1,000-2,000 abortions per year, or about 0. South dakota department of health, ---- south dakota vital statistics induced abortion, , on line 2004, 2003, httpwww. Those performed for fetal indicators included some for lesser conditions such as 9 (0.

    For the case of abortions in cases of rape, adjustment for state-to-state and year-to-year variation in occurrence of rape is necessary. Assuming that all abortions in cases of rape in illinois were paid for by federal medicaid, the fy 2007 figures are compatible with rates of rape-related abortions claimed by agi, but they are 2-3 times higher than rates supported by analysis of data from other states Buy now One Child Policy Case Study

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    This includes perhaps 30 for primarily economic reasons and possibly 0. Best, rape-related pregnancy estimates and descriptive characteristics from a national sample of women, aug. Recent agi literature has given figures of abortions following rape or incest. Some states report maternal mental health issues as a reason for abortion. These figures are not strictly applicable to forcible rape but provide a useful estimate.

    While not a major issue in the united states, abortions for the purpose of selecting the sex of the child are quite common in asia, where they are generally used to abort female fetuses. Most americans would oppose banning abortions for hard cases, but at the same time most americans would support limits on elective abortions, e One Child Policy Case Study Buy now

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    United states, 1995-1996, langston, lynn, marcus berzofsky, christopher krebs, and hope smiley-mcdonald, 9 aug. South dakota department of health, ---- south dakota vital statistics induced abortion, , on line 2004, 2003, httpwww. The most extreme claimed rates of underreporting are necessary to bring this in line with agis claim of 13,000 rape-related abortions per year. They did note that family preference can affect the birth ratio (although they did not explicitly point out that this is via such means as sex selection abortions) and that this does affect it in some countries, but do not report any indication that it is a factor in the united states. These official state statistics suggest that the commonly cited agi figures for the hard cases are high, perhaps by factors of three to five Buy One Child Policy Case Study at a discount

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    March 2002, nebraska 2001 statistical report of abortions, httpwww. Further, it should be noted that these states are not necessarily representative of the nation as a whole some implications of this are analyzed below. April 2005, nebraska 2004 statistical report of abortions, httpwww. Haskell stated that about 80 of the pbas he performed were purely elective, with the remainder performed for genetic reasons. A 2012 department of justice report 10 estimated rates of crime underreporting for 1994-2010 the fraction of unreported rapes and sexual assaults for this period ranged from 44 to 77, or an average of 64.

    Note the south dakota questionnaire allows respondents to indicate multiple reasons, so numbers add to more than total abortions Buy Online One Child Policy Case Study

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    This would tend to undermine the claims regarding the efficacy of contraception methods, something highly promoted by groups such as planned parenthood. The definitions and reporting of reasons vary from state to state, and the completeness and accuracy of the reporting has varied over time. The following tables provide estimates of the fraction of abortions in cases of rape, threat to mothers life or health, or fetal health issues, for 2008 (the latest year for which nation-wide abortion figures are available). Again, the resulting estimates are generally lower than those reported based on the agi surveys. Alternately, some women might falsely claim rape as a reason, for example to obtain funding for an abortion (this appears to be an issue with federally funded abortions as discussed below) Buy One Child Policy Case Study Online at a discount

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    The post-2003 reductions in multiple births reported by 39 correspond to differences of 3,500-7,000 fetuses per year, which is partly attributable to selective reductions. Of the 240 pbas reported in kansas in 19, there were none where the mothers life was at risk in every case the attending physician certified that continuing the pregnancy will constitute a substantial and irreversible impairment of the patients mental function and that there was not a substantial physical risk to the mother from the pregnancy. Further, the prevailing preferences of the american electorate are often cited in regard to u. March 2002, nebraska 2001 statistical report of abortions, httpwww. Thus it is reasonable to conclude that, contrary to agi figures, the fraction of abortions nationwide in cases of rape is closer to 0 One Child Policy Case Study For Sale

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    For the case of abortions in cases of rape, adjustment for state-to-state and year-to-year variation in occurrence of rape is necessary. Regardless of the acutal rate of reporting, it is widely agreed that large numbers of rapes go unreported to authorities. The definitions and reporting of reasons vary from state to state, and the completeness and accuracy of the reporting has varied over time. Thus, rape-related abortion data interpretation is hampered by the particularly traumatic circumstances of such cases. April 2007, data on partial-birth abortion in the united states, division of reproductive health, centers for disease control and prevention, , assisted reproductive technology (art), cdc, on line httpwww For Sale One Child Policy Case Study

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    Since some states and the agi surveys do not separate abortions in cases of threat to the mothers life from abortions in cases of threat to the mothers health, these are both included in the maternal health figures below. Further, it should be noted that these states are not necessarily representative of the nation as a whole some implications of this are analyzed below. March 2008, abortions in kansas 2007, preliminary report, httpwww. According to the fbi, reported annual numbers of forcible rapes in the united states rose from about 90,000 in the mid 1980s to a peak of 109,062 in 1992, then dropped to about 89,000-95,000 for the years 1998-2009 and to 84,767 in 2010 9. Since the fbi only reported 91,111 forcible rapes in the u Sale One Child Policy Case Study

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